Y. Wang, Y. Cao, X. F. Zhao, Z. J. Xu, M. N. Zhu
This paper proposes an effective intra-frame prediction mode (IPM)-based video steganography in HEVC to maintain rate-distortion optimization as well as improve empirical security. The unique aspect of this work and one that distinguishes it from prior art is that we capture the embedding impacts on neighboring prediction units, called inter prediction unit (inter-PU) embedding impacts caused by the predictive coding widespread employed in video coding standards, using a distortion measure. To avoid the emergence of neighboring IPMs mutually affecting each other within the same channel, three-layered isolated channels are established in terms of the property of IPM coding. According to theoretical analysis for embedding impacts on the current prediction unit, called intra prediction unit (intra-PU) embedding impacts on coding efficiency (both visual quality and compression efficiency), a novel distortion function purposely designed to discourage the embedding changes with impacts on adjacent channels is proposed to express the multi-level embedding impacts. Based on the defined distortion function, two-layered syndrome-trellis codes (STCs) are utilized in practical embedding implementation alternatively. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed scheme outperforms other existing IPM-based video steganography in terms of rate-distortion optimization and empirical security.
Attached paper: PAPER.pdf