H. Zhang, Y. Cao, X. F. Zhao
This paper presents a steganalytic approach against motion vector-based video steganography that does not depend on the detailed knowledge of embedding algorithms. In most state-of-the-art video coding standards, the motion vector is the result of block-based motion estimation using rate-distortion optimization. That is to say, each motion vector is locally optimal in a rate-distortion sense, and any modification will inevitably shift the motion vector from locally optimal to non-optimal. As a consequence, it is a very strong evidence of steganography if some motion vectors are found to be locally non-optimal. Based on this fact, the core of our method is an estimator to check the local optimality of motion vectors in a rate-distortion sense. We try to recover the necessary information used for motion vector decision that is lost during lossy compression, based on which a 36-D feature set is formed for training and classification. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, experiments are carried out in different settings. The corresponding results show that our approach has a wide applicability even at low embedding strengths. Particularly, the problem of cover source mismatch is largely alleviated, which indicates that the proposed approach is suitable to be used in situations where a very limited priori knowledge is available.
Cite this paper as:
 H. Zhang, Y. Cao, X. F. Zhao. A Steganalytic Approach to Detect Motion Vector Modification Using Near-Perfect Estimation for Local Optimality. IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 465–478, 2017. [PAPER]